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Biofilm Lifestyle in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent one of the most common infections that are frequently encountered in health care facilities. One of the main mechanisms used by bacteria that allows them to survive hostile environments is biofilm formation. Biofilms are closed bacterial communities that offer protection and safe hiding, allowing bacteria to evade host defenses and hide from the reach of antibiotics. Inside biofilm communities, bacteria show an increased rate of horizontal gene transfer and exchange of resistance and virulence genes. Additionally, bacterial communication within the biofilm allows them to orchestrate the expression of virulence genes, which further cements the infestation and increases the invasiveness of the infection. These facts stress the necessity of continuously updating our information and understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and eradication methods of this growing public health concern. This review seeks to understand the role of biofilm formation in recurrent urinary tact infections by outlining the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation in different uropathogens, in addition to shedding light on some biofilm eradication strategies.






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